|SPIRITED PERFORMANCE WITH THE 1.4 HDi 16V ENGINE
THE ADVANTAGES OF THE 1.4 HDi 16V ENGINE
THE CITROEN C3 15 THE FIRST VEHICLE TO BE FITTED WITH THE NEW GENERATION 1.4 HDi 16V ENGINE DEVELOPED THROUGH THE COOPERATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN AND FORD. AS A RESULT OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL CHOICES MADE (CYLINDER HEAD DESIGN, SECOND-GENERATION COMMON-RAIL SYSTEM, VARIABLEGEOMETRY TURBOCHARGER AND DIRECT INJECTION), THIS ENGINE GAINS A LEVEL OF QUIET, ASSURED PERFORMANCE HITHERTO SEEN ONLY IN HIGH-SPEC VEHICLES.
The performance of the 1.4 HDi 16V engine is quite simply astonishing for a vehicle in this category, particularly with respect to mid-range acceleration and response, these being the conditions most frequently encountered in use.
Easy and enjoyable to drive, this engine has a strong and appealing personality of its own.
Thanks to the second-generation common-rail system, the 1.4 HDi 16V combines improvements in torque, performance, fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, with quiet operation and compact design.
OPTIMISED PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY
The 1.4 HDi 16V engine develops 66 kW EEC (92 bhp DIN) at 4,000 rpm and torque of 200 Nm at 1,750 rpm. It is the most efficient engine in its segment (47 kW/litre and 66 bhp DIN/litre).
The reduction in weight of the moving parts contributes to engine performance by making it possible to increase speed more quickly, in the same way as with a petrol engine.
Equipped with second-generation common-rail injection technology, a variable geometry turbocharger (multivalve technology) and an air-to-air intercooler, this new engine applies specific control laws, through which it is able to adapt to driver behaviour by adjusting output in accordance with the pressure placed on the accelerator pedal.
The 1.4 HDi 16V is an engine of parsimonious fuel consumption (4.3 litres/100 km in a combined cycle) as a result of its low capacity, advanced design materials (aluminium alloys and composite materials) and lower internal friction combined with the use of common-rail direct injection technology. One way of cutting fuel consumption is to reduce the weight of vehicle components. With a total weight of around 98 kg, the 1.4 HDi 16V engine is a real "featherweight". This reduction in weight was achieved through the general use of aluminium alloys and composite materials.
The cylinder block and cover are made of pressure cast aluminium, with cast-iron bearings and sleeves inserted during the casting process.
The cross-flow cylinder head, comprising four valves per cylinder, is made up of two sections: a tower gravity-cast section and an upper section bearing the pressure-cast camshaft.
The camshaft features sintered cams that are fitted onto a steel tube. This design reduces the weight of the assembly by 30% or 1.3 kg.
A number of components are made of composite materials, including the intake manifold, cylinder head cover, water inlet and outlet housings and the treatment system for crankcase fumes.
All the moving parts (such as the crankshaft, rods and pistons) have been optimised with a view to reducing size and weight. The diameter of the valve stems, for example, is 5.5 mm. This is a size more commonly found in small, high-performance petrol engines. Another factor that plays a role in reducing overall consumption is the reduction in friction losses. The valves are controlled by finger followers that cut fuel consumption by between 1.5% and 2% depending on engine speed.
Last, the high-pressure common-rail injection system provides a fine, high-precision fuel spray and contributes to the management of fuel consumption. A single rail supplies the four injectors with fuel at a pressure varying from 250 bars to 1,400 bars.
These new electronically controlled injectors calculate the timing and quantity of fuel injection with precision, particularly for the pilot injection (or preinjection).
ACOUSTIC COMFORT AND VIBRATION CONTROL
The 1.4 HDi 16V engine offers excellent acoustic comfort and vibration control as a result of its specific characteristics and its positioning under the bonnet of the C3, using a system of specialty adapted shims and mounts.
The pilot injection (small quantity of fuel injected before the main injection) gradually increases the temperature in the combustion chamber and brings about gradual combustion with a significantly higher level of acoustic comfort, notably at idle.
The highly elaborate exterior shape of the cylinder block - obtained by pressure casting - and the precise ribbing used to stiffen the lower part, also contribute to the low emissivity of the engine.
Last, the use of lighter mobile parts reduces engine inertia and so improves vibration control.
RESPECT FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
Combining new-generation common-rail technology with improved combustion management and reduced weight, these low-capacity diesel engines enhance performance levels and bring significant cuts in fuel consumption and C02 emissions with no trade-off in vehicle performance.
The 1.4 HDi 16V Engine emits 112 g of CO2 per km, an exceptional result in view of its performance characteristics.
The compact dimensions of the engine made it possible to modify the layout of parts underneath the bonnet with a view to increasing passenger protection.
The layout of the parts around the engine such as the exhaust, accessories and air-intake has been defined to take up less space.
The air supply system behind the engine, which is made of composite materials, provides a compressible area in the event of impact.